Getters and setters netbeans mac

Implementing Database Persistence. Create database startup script. Create table and test data scripts. Run scripts and load test data. Integrating the Web Application with the Persistence Layer. Modify service layer. Fix the failing tests. Create new application context for service layer configuration. Add transaction and connection pool configuration to application context. Final test of the complete application.

Build Scripts. This document is a step-by-step guide on how to develop a web application from scratch using the Spring Framework. Only a cursory knowledge of Spring itself is assumed, and as such this tutorial is ideal if you are learning or investigating Spring. Spring provides several options for configuring your application. The most popular one is using XML files. This is also the traditional way that has been supported from the first release of Spring. With the introduction of Annotations in Java 5, we now have an alternate way of configuring our Spring applications.

The new Spring 2. This document uses the traditional XML style for configuration. We are working on an "Annotation Edition" of this document and hope to publish it in the near future. Please note that we are not going to cover any background information or theory in this tutorial; there are plenty of books available that cover the areas in depth; whenever a new class or feature is used in the tutorial, forward pointers to the relevant section s of the Spring reference documentation are provided where the class or feature is covered in depth.

The following list details all of the various parts of the Spring Framework that are covered over the course of the tutorial. The following prerequisite software and environment setup is assumed. You should also be reasonably comfortable using the following technologies. NetBeans IDE 6. The Ant build scripts are omitted from this discussion as they are automatically generated by the IDE. The Spring plugin module for NetBeans should be installed prior to start of this project,. You may of course use pretty much any variation or version of the above software.

If you want to use IntelliJ instead of NetBeans or Jetty instead of GlassFish, then many of the tutorial steps will not translate directly to your environment but you should be able to follow along anyway. The application we will be building from scratch over the course of this tutorial is a very basic inventory management system. This inventory management system is severely constrained in terms of scope; find below a use case diagram illustrating the simple use cases that we will be implementing.

The reason why the application is so constrained is so that you can concentrate on the specifics of Spring Web MVC and Spring, and not the finer details of inventory management. Use case diagram of the inventory management system. We will start by setting up the basic project directory structure for our application, downloading the required libraries, setting up our Ant build scripts, etc.

The first step gives us a solid foundation on which to develop the application proper in parts 2 , 3 , and 4. By the time we have finished all of the steps in the tutorial, we will have an application that does basic inventory management, including listing stock and permitting the price increase of such stock. We are going to need a place to keep all the source and other files we will be creating, so let's create a project named 'springapp'.

Does not work with Netbeans RC · Issue # · rzwitserloot/lombok · GitHub

Project Creation Wizard: Step 1 of 3. Project Creation Wizard: Step 2 of 3. Project Creation Wizard: Step 3 of 3. Find below a screen shot of what your project directory structure must look like after following the above instructions. The screen shot shows the project directory structure inside the NetBeans IDE: you do not need to use the NetBeans IDE to complete this tutorial successfully, but using NetBeans will make it much easier to follow along.

The project directory structure. Since we are creating a web application, let's start by updating the basic JSP page 'index. The 'index. Just to have a complete web application, let's update the 'web. Click the Files tab in the project to view the web directory and its contents. Project Files Explorer. Right click the project and click Build. It builds the web application. Build the web application.

Right click the project and click Undeploy and Deploy. It deploys the web application to GlassFish server. Deploy the web application. The server is already started when the application was deployed in the previous step. The application's starting page. If you have not already downloaded the Spring Framework, now is the time to do so. We are currently using the 'Spring Framework 2. Unzip this file somewhere as we are going to use several files from this download later on.

This completes the setup of the environment that is necessary, and now we can start actually developing our Spring Framework MVC application. Modify the minimal 'web. It is going to control where all our requests are routed based on information we will enter at a later point. We have decided to let any URL with an '. Next, update the file 'springapp-servlet.

This file contains the bean definitions plain old Java objects used by the DispatcherServlet. It is the WebApplicationContext where all web-related components go. The Spring Web MVC framework uses an implementation class of the interface called HandlerMapping to define the mapping between a request URL and the object that is going to handle that request the handler. Unlike the DispatcherServlet , the HelloController is responsible for handling a request for a particular page of the website and is also known as a 'Page Controller' Fowler.

The spring libraries are copied when the project is first created. These jars will be deployed to the server and they are also used during the build process. Spring Libraries. Create your Controller class — we are naming it HelloController , and it is defined in the 'springapp. This is a very basic Controller implementation. We will be expanding this later on as well as extending some of the base controller implementations provided by Spring. The model that this class returns is actually resolved via a ViewResolver. Since we have not explicitly defined a ViewResolver , we are going to be given a default one by Spring that simply forwards to a URL matching the name of the view specified.

We will modify this later on. We have also specified a logger so we can verify that we actually got into the handler. Testing is a vital part of software development. It is also a core practice in Agile development. We have found that the best time to write tests is during development, not after, so even though our controller doesn't contain complex logic, we're going to write a test.

This will allow us to make changes to it in the future with confidence. It is a unit test that verifies the view name returned by handleRequest matches the name of the view we expect: 'hello. Another of the best practices of Agile development is Continuous Integration. It's a good idea to ensure your tests are run with every build ideally as automated project builds so that you know your application logic is behaving as expected as the code evolves.

Now it is time to create our first view. As we mentioned earlier, we are forwarding to a JSP page named 'hello. To begin with, we'll put it in the 'web' directory. Refer section 1. Let's try this new version of the application. The updated application. Let's take quick look at the parts of our application that we have created so far.

It was used to test our setup was correct. We will later change this to actually provide a link into our application. We currently have an empty model and will be providing a full model later on. The good news is the whole setup works and we are now ready to add more functionality.

The project directory structure at the end of part 1. This is Part 2 of a step-by-step tutorial on how to develop a web application from scratch using the Spring Framework. In Part 1 we configured the environment and set up a basic application that we will now flesh out. This is what we have implemented so far:. We will be creating a 'header' file that will be included in every JSP page that we're going to write.

We ensure the same definitions are included in all our JSPs simply by including the header file. This will ensure that views can only be accessed via the controller since it will not be possible to access these pages directly via a URL. This strategy might not work in some application servers and if this is the case with the one you are using, move the 'jsp' directory up a level. First we create the header file for inclusion in all the JSPs we create. Now we can update 'index.

This means all requests for 'index. Just delete the current contents of 'index. Move 'hello. Add the same include directive we added to 'index. Before we update the location of the JSP in our controller, let's update our unit test class first. We also know there should be an object in the model mapped to the key "now". We rerun our JUnit and the test passes. Remember that the Controller has already been configured in 'springapp-servlet. Right now the controller specifies the full path of the view, which creates an unnecessary dependency between the controller and the view.

Ideally we would like to map to the view using a logical name, allowing us to switch the view without having to change the controller. For the basic mapping of a view to a location, simply set a prefix and a suffix on the InternalResourceViewResolver. This second approach is the one that we will implement now, so we modify the 'springapp-servlet.

By choosing the JstlView , it will enable us to use JSTL in combination with message resource bundles as well as provide us with the support for internationalization. We update the view name in the controller test class HelloControllerTests to 'hello' and rerun the test to check it fails. We then remove the prefix and suffix from the view name in the controller, leaving the controller to reference the view by its logical name "hello".

Rerun the test and it should now pass. Let's compile and deploy the application and verify the application still works. Let's take quick look at what we have created in Part 2. These are the existing artifacts we have changed in Part 2. The project directory structure at the end of part 2. This is Part 3 of a step-by-step tutorial on how to develop a Spring application. In this section, we will adopt a pragmatic Test-Driven Development TDD approach for creating the domain objects and implementing the business logic for our inventory management system.

This means we'll "code a little, test a little, code some more then test some more". In Part 1 we configured the environment and set up a basic application. In Part 2 we refined the application by decoupling the view from the controller. Spring is about making simple things easy and the hard things possible. POJOs are essentially plain old Java classes free from any contract usually enforced by a framework or component architecture through subclassing or the implementation of interfaces.

POJOs are plain old objects that are free from such constraints, making object-oriented programming possible once again. In fact, almost everything you implement should be a POJO. If it's not, you should be sure to ask yourself why that is. In this section, we will begin to see the simplicity and power of Spring. In our inventory management system, we have the concept of a product and a service for handling them.

In particular, the business has requested the ability to increase prices across all products. Any decrease will be done on an individual product basis, but this feature is outside the scope of our application. The validation rules for price increase are:. Find below a class diagram of our inventory management system. The class diagram for the inventory management system. Let's now add some business logic in the form of a Product class and a service called ProductManager service that will manage all the products. In order to separate the web dependent logic from the business logic, we will place classes related to the web tier in the 'web' package and create two new packages: one for service objects called 'service' and another for domain objects called 'domain'.

First we implement the Product class as a POJO with a default constructor automatically provided if we don't specify any constructors and getters and setters for its properties 'description' and 'price'. Let's also make it Serializable , not necessary for our application, but could come in handy later on when we persist and store its state.

The class is a domain object, so it belongs in the 'domain' package. Now we write the unit tests for our Product class. Some developers don't bother writing tests for getters and setters or so-called 'auto-generated' code. It usually takes much longer to engage in the debate as this paragraph demonstrates on whether or not getters and setters need to be unit tested as they're so 'trivial'. We write them because: a they are trivial to write; b having the tests pays dividends in terms of the time saved for the one time out of a hundred you may be caught out by a dodgy getter or setter; and c they improve test coverage.

We create a Product stub and test each getter and setter as a pair in a single test. Usually, you will write one or more test methods per class method, with each test method testing a particular condition in a class method such as checking for a null value of an argument passed into the method. Next we create the ProductManager. This is the service responsible for handling products. It contains two methods: a business method increasePrice that increases prices for all products and a getter method getProducts for retrieving all products. We have chosen to make it an interface instead of a concrete class for an number of reasons.

First of all, it makes writing unit tests for Controllers easier as we'll see in the next chapter. Before we implement the methods in SimpleProductManager , we're going to define some tests first. A looser interpretation of it is more akin to Test Oriented Development TOD , where we alternate between writing code and tests as part of the development process.

The most important thing is for a codebase to have as complete a set of unit tests as possible, so how you achieve it becomes somewhat academic. Most TDD developers, however, do agree that the quality of tests is always higher when they are written at around the same time as the code that is being developed, so that's the approach we're going to take. To write effective tests, you have to consider all the possible pre- and post-conditions of a method being tested as well as what happens within the method. Let's start by testing a call to getProducts returns null.

Rerun all the JUnit tests and the test should fail as getProducts has yet to be implemented. It's usually a good idea to mark unimplemented methods by getting them to throw an UnsupportedOperationException. Next we implement a test for retrieving a list of stub products populated with test data. We know that we'll need to populate the products list in the majority of our test methods in SimpleProductManagerTests , so we define the stub list in JUnit's setUp , a method that is invoked before each test method is called.

Rerun all the Junit tests and our two tests should fail. We go back to the SimpleProductManager and implement the getter and setter methods for the products property. Rerun the Junit tests and all our tests should pass. We proceed by implementing the following tests for the increasePrice method:. We return to SimpleProductManager to implement increasePrice. Rerun the JUnit tests and all our tests should pass.

We certainly do. We're now ready to move back into the web layer to put a list of products into our Controller model. Let's take quick look at what we did in Part 3. This is an example of how non-invasive the Spring Framework really is. One of its core aims is to enable developers to focus on tackling the most important task of all: to deliver value by modelling and implementing business requirements. Another of its aims is to make following best practices easy, such as implementing services using interfaces and unit testing as much as is pragmatic given project constraints.

Over the course of this tutorial, you'll see the benefits of designing to interfaces come to life. The project directory structure at the end of part 3. This is Part 4 of a step-by-step account of how to develop a web application from scratch using the Spring Framework. In Part 2 we refined the application that we will build upon. Part 3 added all the business logic and unit tests. It's now time to build the actual web interface for the application.

First of all, let's rename our HelloController to something more meaningful. How about InventoryController since we are building an inventory system. This is where an IDE with refactoring support is invaluable. We also add code to have the controller pass some product information to the view. The getModelAndView method now returns a Map with both the date and time and the products list obtained from the manager reference. We will also need to modify the InventoryControllerTests to supply a ProductManager and extract the value for 'now' from the model Map before the tests will pass again.

It's time to add a SimpleProductManager to our configuration file and to pass that into the setter of the InventoryController. We are not going to add any code to load the business objects from a database just yet. Instead, we can stub a couple of Product instances using Spring's bean and application context support. We will simply put the data we need as a couple of bean entries in 'springapp-servlet. We will also add the 'messageSource' bean entry that will pull in the messages resource bundle 'messages.

Also remember to rename the reference to HelloController to InventoryController since we renamed it. We create a 'messages. Now re-build the application and deploy it. Let's try accessing this new version of the application and you should see the following:. To provide an interface in the web application to expose the price increase functionality, we add a form that will allow the user to enter a percentage value.

This form uses a tag library named 'spring-form. We have to copy this file from the Spring distribution 'spring-framework We also have to declare this taglib in a page directive in the jsp file, and then start using the tags we have thus imported. Add the JSP page 'priceincrease. This next class is a very simple JavaBean class, and in our case there is a single property with a getter and setter.

This is the object that the form will populate and that our business logic will extract the price increase percentage from. The following validator class gets control after the user presses submit. The values entered in the form will be set on the command object by the framework. The validate.. Now we need to add an entry in the 'springapp-servlet. We define objects to inject into properties for commandClass and validator.

We also specify two views, a formView that is used for the form and a successView that we will go to after successful form processing. The latter can be of two types. It can be a regular view reference that is forwarded to one of our JSP pages. One disadvantage with this approach is, that if the user refreshes the page, the form data is submitted again, and you would end up with a double price increase.

An alternative way is to use a redirect, where a response is sent back to the users browser instructing it to redirect to a new URL. It has to be a URL that is externally reachable. We have chosen to use 'hello.

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This URL maps to the 'hello. Next, let's take a look at the controller for this form. The onSubmit.. We are also adding some messages to the 'messages. Compile and deploy all this and after reloading the application we can test it. This is what the form looks like with errors displayed. Finally, we will add a link to the price increase page from the 'hello.

Now, re-deploy and try the new price increase feature. Let's look at what we did in Part 4. Next we modified the JSP page to use a message bundle for static text and also added a forEach loop to show the dynamic list of products. The project directory structure at the end of part 4. This is Part 5 of a step-by-step account of how to develop a web application from scratch using the Spring Framework. Part 3 added all the business logic and unit tests and Part 4 developed the web interface. It is now time to introduce database persistence.

We saw in the earlier parts how we loaded some business objects using bean definitions in a configuration file. It is obvious that this would never work in real life — whenever we re-start the server we are back to the original prices. We need to add code to actually persist these changes to a database. Before we can start developing the persistence code, we need a database. This database is distributed with Spring, so it is already part of the web application's lib directory.

We will use HSQL in standalone server mode. That means we will have to start up a separate database server instead of relying on an embedded database, but it gives us easier access to see changes made to the database when running the web application. We need a script or batch file to start the database.

Create a 'db' directory under the main 'springapp' directory. This new directory will contain the database files. Now, let's and add a startup script:. For Windows add:. First, lets review the SQL statement needed to create the table. Now we need to add our test data. To use this we need to add database connection to the HSQL database. Configuring a database connection. Executing the SQL scripts. Select the data from the table using the SQL command window. Executing the select query from SQL command window. Now you can execute createTable and loadData to prepare the test data we will use later.


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In this directory we create a new interface called ProductDao. This will be the interface that defines the functionality that the DAO implementation classes will provide — we could choose to have more than one implementation some day. Since we are creating a web application, let's start by updating the basic JSP page 'index. The 'index. Just to have a complete web application, let's update the 'web. Click the Files tab in the project to view the web directory and its contents. Project Files Explorer. Right click the project and click Build. It builds the web application.

Build the web application. Right click the project and click Undeploy and Deploy. It deploys the web application to GlassFish server. Deploy the web application. The server is already started when the application was deployed in the previous step. The application's starting page. If you have not already downloaded the Spring Framework, now is the time to do so. We are currently using the 'Spring Framework 2. Unzip this file somewhere as we are going to use several files from this download later on.

This completes the setup of the environment that is necessary, and now we can start actually developing our Spring Framework MVC application. Modify the minimal 'web.

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It is going to control where all our requests are routed based on information we will enter at a later point. We have decided to let any URL with an '. Next, update the file 'springapp-servlet. This file contains the bean definitions plain old Java objects used by the DispatcherServlet. It is the WebApplicationContext where all web-related components go. The Spring Web MVC framework uses an implementation class of the interface called HandlerMapping to define the mapping between a request URL and the object that is going to handle that request the handler.

Unlike the DispatcherServlet , the HelloController is responsible for handling a request for a particular page of the website and is also known as a 'Page Controller' Fowler. The spring libraries are copied when the project is first created. These jars will be deployed to the server and they are also used during the build process. Spring Libraries. Create your Controller class — we are naming it HelloController , and it is defined in the 'springapp. This is a very basic Controller implementation.

We will be expanding this later on as well as extending some of the base controller implementations provided by Spring. The model that this class returns is actually resolved via a ViewResolver. Since we have not explicitly defined a ViewResolver , we are going to be given a default one by Spring that simply forwards to a URL matching the name of the view specified. We will modify this later on. We have also specified a logger so we can verify that we actually got into the handler.

Testing is a vital part of software development. It is also a core practice in Agile development. We have found that the best time to write tests is during development, not after, so even though our controller doesn't contain complex logic, we're going to write a test. This will allow us to make changes to it in the future with confidence. It is a unit test that verifies the view name returned by handleRequest matches the name of the view we expect: 'hello. Another of the best practices of Agile development is Continuous Integration. It's a good idea to ensure your tests are run with every build ideally as automated project builds so that you know your application logic is behaving as expected as the code evolves.

Now it is time to create our first view. As we mentioned earlier, we are forwarding to a JSP page named 'hello. To begin with, we'll put it in the 'web' directory. Refer section 1. Let's try this new version of the application. The updated application. Let's take quick look at the parts of our application that we have created so far. It was used to test our setup was correct.

We will later change this to actually provide a link into our application. We currently have an empty model and will be providing a full model later on. The good news is the whole setup works and we are now ready to add more functionality. The project directory structure at the end of part 1. This is Part 2 of a step-by-step tutorial on how to develop a web application from scratch using the Spring Framework.

In Part 1 we configured the environment and set up a basic application that we will now flesh out. This is what we have implemented so far:. We will be creating a 'header' file that will be included in every JSP page that we're going to write. We ensure the same definitions are included in all our JSPs simply by including the header file.

This will ensure that views can only be accessed via the controller since it will not be possible to access these pages directly via a URL.

This strategy might not work in some application servers and if this is the case with the one you are using, move the 'jsp' directory up a level. First we create the header file for inclusion in all the JSPs we create. Now we can update 'index. This means all requests for 'index. Just delete the current contents of 'index. Move 'hello. Add the same include directive we added to 'index.

Before we update the location of the JSP in our controller, let's update our unit test class first. We also know there should be an object in the model mapped to the key "now". We rerun our JUnit and the test passes. Remember that the Controller has already been configured in 'springapp-servlet. Right now the controller specifies the full path of the view, which creates an unnecessary dependency between the controller and the view.

Ideally we would like to map to the view using a logical name, allowing us to switch the view without having to change the controller. For the basic mapping of a view to a location, simply set a prefix and a suffix on the InternalResourceViewResolver. This second approach is the one that we will implement now, so we modify the 'springapp-servlet.

By choosing the JstlView , it will enable us to use JSTL in combination with message resource bundles as well as provide us with the support for internationalization. We update the view name in the controller test class HelloControllerTests to 'hello' and rerun the test to check it fails. We then remove the prefix and suffix from the view name in the controller, leaving the controller to reference the view by its logical name "hello".

Rerun the test and it should now pass. Let's compile and deploy the application and verify the application still works. Let's take quick look at what we have created in Part 2. These are the existing artifacts we have changed in Part 2. The project directory structure at the end of part 2. This is Part 3 of a step-by-step tutorial on how to develop a Spring application. In this section, we will adopt a pragmatic Test-Driven Development TDD approach for creating the domain objects and implementing the business logic for our inventory management system.

This means we'll "code a little, test a little, code some more then test some more". In Part 1 we configured the environment and set up a basic application. In Part 2 we refined the application by decoupling the view from the controller. Spring is about making simple things easy and the hard things possible. POJOs are essentially plain old Java classes free from any contract usually enforced by a framework or component architecture through subclassing or the implementation of interfaces.

POJOs are plain old objects that are free from such constraints, making object-oriented programming possible once again. In fact, almost everything you implement should be a POJO. If it's not, you should be sure to ask yourself why that is. In this section, we will begin to see the simplicity and power of Spring. In our inventory management system, we have the concept of a product and a service for handling them. In particular, the business has requested the ability to increase prices across all products.

Any decrease will be done on an individual product basis, but this feature is outside the scope of our application. The validation rules for price increase are:. Find below a class diagram of our inventory management system. The class diagram for the inventory management system. Let's now add some business logic in the form of a Product class and a service called ProductManager service that will manage all the products. In order to separate the web dependent logic from the business logic, we will place classes related to the web tier in the 'web' package and create two new packages: one for service objects called 'service' and another for domain objects called 'domain'.

First we implement the Product class as a POJO with a default constructor automatically provided if we don't specify any constructors and getters and setters for its properties 'description' and 'price'. Let's also make it Serializable , not necessary for our application, but could come in handy later on when we persist and store its state.

The class is a domain object, so it belongs in the 'domain' package. Now we write the unit tests for our Product class. Some developers don't bother writing tests for getters and setters or so-called 'auto-generated' code. It usually takes much longer to engage in the debate as this paragraph demonstrates on whether or not getters and setters need to be unit tested as they're so 'trivial'.

We write them because: a they are trivial to write; b having the tests pays dividends in terms of the time saved for the one time out of a hundred you may be caught out by a dodgy getter or setter; and c they improve test coverage. We create a Product stub and test each getter and setter as a pair in a single test. Usually, you will write one or more test methods per class method, with each test method testing a particular condition in a class method such as checking for a null value of an argument passed into the method.

Next we create the ProductManager. This is the service responsible for handling products. It contains two methods: a business method increasePrice that increases prices for all products and a getter method getProducts for retrieving all products. We have chosen to make it an interface instead of a concrete class for an number of reasons. First of all, it makes writing unit tests for Controllers easier as we'll see in the next chapter. Before we implement the methods in SimpleProductManager , we're going to define some tests first. A looser interpretation of it is more akin to Test Oriented Development TOD , where we alternate between writing code and tests as part of the development process.

The most important thing is for a codebase to have as complete a set of unit tests as possible, so how you achieve it becomes somewhat academic. Most TDD developers, however, do agree that the quality of tests is always higher when they are written at around the same time as the code that is being developed, so that's the approach we're going to take. To write effective tests, you have to consider all the possible pre- and post-conditions of a method being tested as well as what happens within the method.

Let's start by testing a call to getProducts returns null. Rerun all the JUnit tests and the test should fail as getProducts has yet to be implemented. It's usually a good idea to mark unimplemented methods by getting them to throw an UnsupportedOperationException. Next we implement a test for retrieving a list of stub products populated with test data. We know that we'll need to populate the products list in the majority of our test methods in SimpleProductManagerTests , so we define the stub list in JUnit's setUp , a method that is invoked before each test method is called. Rerun all the Junit tests and our two tests should fail.

We go back to the SimpleProductManager and implement the getter and setter methods for the products property. Rerun the Junit tests and all our tests should pass. We proceed by implementing the following tests for the increasePrice method:. We return to SimpleProductManager to implement increasePrice. Rerun the JUnit tests and all our tests should pass. We certainly do. We're now ready to move back into the web layer to put a list of products into our Controller model. Let's take quick look at what we did in Part 3. This is an example of how non-invasive the Spring Framework really is.

One of its core aims is to enable developers to focus on tackling the most important task of all: to deliver value by modelling and implementing business requirements. Another of its aims is to make following best practices easy, such as implementing services using interfaces and unit testing as much as is pragmatic given project constraints.

Over the course of this tutorial, you'll see the benefits of designing to interfaces come to life. The project directory structure at the end of part 3. This is Part 4 of a step-by-step account of how to develop a web application from scratch using the Spring Framework. In Part 2 we refined the application that we will build upon. Part 3 added all the business logic and unit tests.

It's now time to build the actual web interface for the application. First of all, let's rename our HelloController to something more meaningful. How about InventoryController since we are building an inventory system. This is where an IDE with refactoring support is invaluable. We also add code to have the controller pass some product information to the view. The getModelAndView method now returns a Map with both the date and time and the products list obtained from the manager reference. We will also need to modify the InventoryControllerTests to supply a ProductManager and extract the value for 'now' from the model Map before the tests will pass again.

It's time to add a SimpleProductManager to our configuration file and to pass that into the setter of the InventoryController. We are not going to add any code to load the business objects from a database just yet. Instead, we can stub a couple of Product instances using Spring's bean and application context support.

We will simply put the data we need as a couple of bean entries in 'springapp-servlet. We will also add the 'messageSource' bean entry that will pull in the messages resource bundle 'messages. Also remember to rename the reference to HelloController to InventoryController since we renamed it. We create a 'messages. Now re-build the application and deploy it. Let's try accessing this new version of the application and you should see the following:. To provide an interface in the web application to expose the price increase functionality, we add a form that will allow the user to enter a percentage value.

This form uses a tag library named 'spring-form. We have to copy this file from the Spring distribution 'spring-framework We also have to declare this taglib in a page directive in the jsp file, and then start using the tags we have thus imported. Add the JSP page 'priceincrease.

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This next class is a very simple JavaBean class, and in our case there is a single property with a getter and setter. This is the object that the form will populate and that our business logic will extract the price increase percentage from. The following validator class gets control after the user presses submit. The values entered in the form will be set on the command object by the framework.

The validate.. Now we need to add an entry in the 'springapp-servlet. We define objects to inject into properties for commandClass and validator. We also specify two views, a formView that is used for the form and a successView that we will go to after successful form processing. The latter can be of two types.

It can be a regular view reference that is forwarded to one of our JSP pages. One disadvantage with this approach is, that if the user refreshes the page, the form data is submitted again, and you would end up with a double price increase. An alternative way is to use a redirect, where a response is sent back to the users browser instructing it to redirect to a new URL.

It has to be a URL that is externally reachable. We have chosen to use 'hello. This URL maps to the 'hello. Next, let's take a look at the controller for this form. The onSubmit.. We are also adding some messages to the 'messages. Compile and deploy all this and after reloading the application we can test it.

This is what the form looks like with errors displayed. Finally, we will add a link to the price increase page from the 'hello. Now, re-deploy and try the new price increase feature. Let's look at what we did in Part 4. Next we modified the JSP page to use a message bundle for static text and also added a forEach loop to show the dynamic list of products. The project directory structure at the end of part 4. This is Part 5 of a step-by-step account of how to develop a web application from scratch using the Spring Framework.

Part 3 added all the business logic and unit tests and Part 4 developed the web interface. It is now time to introduce database persistence. We saw in the earlier parts how we loaded some business objects using bean definitions in a configuration file. It is obvious that this would never work in real life — whenever we re-start the server we are back to the original prices. We need to add code to actually persist these changes to a database. Before we can start developing the persistence code, we need a database.

This database is distributed with Spring, so it is already part of the web application's lib directory. We will use HSQL in standalone server mode. That means we will have to start up a separate database server instead of relying on an embedded database, but it gives us easier access to see changes made to the database when running the web application.

We need a script or batch file to start the database. Create a 'db' directory under the main 'springapp' directory. This new directory will contain the database files. Now, let's and add a startup script:. For Windows add:. First, lets review the SQL statement needed to create the table. Now we need to add our test data. To use this we need to add database connection to the HSQL database.

Configuring a database connection. Executing the SQL scripts. Select the data from the table using the SQL command window. Executing the select query from SQL command window. Now you can execute createTable and loadData to prepare the test data we will use later. In this directory we create a new interface called ProductDao. This will be the interface that defines the functionality that the DAO implementation classes will provide — we could choose to have more than one implementation some day.

Spring provides a JDBC abstraction framework that we will make use of. The biggest difference between using straight JDBC and Spring's JDBC framework is that you don't have to worry about opening and closing the connection or any statements. It is all handled for you. Another advantage is that you won't have to catch any exceptions, unless you want to. If you want to, you can catch this exception, but since most database exceptions are impossible to recover from anyway, you might as well just let the exception propagate up to a higher level.

All we will have to provide in the application context is a configured DataSource. Let's go over the two DAO methods in this class. This is accessed by calling the getSimpleJdbcTemplate method. We simply provide the SQL statement and a class that can handle the mapping between the ResultSet and the Product class. In our case the row mapper is a class named ProductMapper that we define as an inner class of the DAO.

This class will so far not be used outside of the DAO so making it an inner class works well. The ProductMapper implements the ParameterizedRowMapper interface that defines a single method named mapRow that must be implemented. This method will map the data from each row into a class that represents the entity you are retrieving in your query. Since the RowMapper is parameterized, the mapRow method returns the actual type that is created.

The second method saveProduct is also using the SimplJdbcTemplate. This time we are calling the update method passing in an SQL statement together with the parameter values in the form of a MapSqlParameterSource. Using a MapSqlParameterSource allows us to use named parameters instead of the typical "? The named parameters makes your code more explicit and you avoid problems caused by parameters being set out of order etc. The update method returns the count of rows affected.

We need to store the value of the primary key for each product in the Product class. This key will be used when we persist any changes to the object back to the database. To hold this key we add a private field named 'id' complete with setters and getters to Product. Spring provides an extensive testing framework that supports JUnit 3.

We can't cover all of that in this guide but we will show a simple implementation of the JUnit 3. We need to add the jar file containing the Spring test framework to our project. Add spring-test. Now we can create our test class. We get dependency injection of any public setter from an application context.

Java Tutorial for Beginners - 31 - Getters and Setters

This application context is loaded by the test framework. All we need to do is specify the name for it in the getConfigLocations method. We also get an opportunity to prepare our database with the appropriate test data in the onSetUpInTransaction method. This is important, since we don't know the state of the database when we run our tests.

As long as the table exists we will clear it and load what we need for our tests. Since we are extending a "Transactional" test, any changes we make will be automatically rolled back once the test finishes. The deleteFromTables and executeSqlScript methods are defined in the super class, so we don't have to implement them for each test.

Just pass in the table names to be cleared and the name of the script that contains the test data. We have defined a productDao which is the class we are testing. We have also defined a DataSource with place holders for the configuration values. These values are provided via a separate property file and at runtime, the PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer that we have defined will read this property file and substitute the place holders with the actual values.

This is convenient since this isolates the connection values into their own file. These values often need to be changed during application deployment. The content of this property file is:. Since we added a configuration file to the 'test' " directory and a jdbc.